Entering Damascus and Proclaiming Arab Rule
On 29 September 1918, Prince Faisal established his leadership in Daraa and ordered the final march to Damascus through the Hajj route Zarif-Tafas-Sheikh Maskin. At the midnight of 30 September, the Revolt’s advancing forces reached the outskirts of the city and held position in the areas of Ashrafieh, Zarafieh, Kawkab, Al Mazzeh and Burda Heights, with the Arab liberation army having crossed 1,000 miles from Mecca to Damascus.
Upon the Arab forces’ arrival at the city’s outskirts, some of the non-regular troops entered Damascus, announcing their arrival and hoisting the Arab flag at the municipality’s building on the evening of 30 September 1918.
On the morning of 1 October 1918, Sharif Nasser bin Ali entered the city, accompanied by Nouri Shaalan and Odeh Abu Tayeh, leading the Arab troops. The city was jubilant on the day of the great liberation, and the end of a four-century Turkish nightmare.
Chasing Remnants of Turkish Forces in Syria and Lebanon
By the end of October 1918, the liberation of Syria and Lebanon was completed in two parallel movements, starting from Damascus and onto Homs-Hama-Aleppo, arriving at Maslamiyah, where the railway that connects Syria and Iraq to Istanbul met. This was the last point, as Turkey on the next day, 30 October 1918, signed the “Armistice of Mudros.”
Medina Fortress Surrenders
After the armistice was signed, Fakhri Pasha refused to relinquish control over Medina, but the closing siege led by Prince Abdullah forced him to open the door to negotiations. Princes Ali and Abdullah met with the Turkish officers, who asked that Turkish forces be allowed to exit Medina to Yanbu and Wajh with their weapons, but they were denied. They were offered instead to have Fakhri Pasha himself surrender along with the fortress and every unit outside Medina on site, with each required to turn over their weapons.
Fakhri Pasha at first rejected the terms and barricaded his forces in the Prophet’s Chamber, threatening to blow it up if forced to surrender. Prince Abdullah, however, managed to convince him to turn himself in, and the terms set by the Arabs were met. Thus, 31 months later, the fortress of Medina, composed of 491 officers and 7,545 soldiers, surrendered.